可用性测试(Usability testing),是一项通过用户的使用来评估产品的技术,由于它反应了用户的真实使用经验,所以可以视为一种不可或缺的可用性检验过程[1]。也就是说,可用性测试是指让用户使用产品(服务)的设计原型或者成品,通过观察,记录和分析用户的行为和感受,以改善产品(服务)可用性的一系列方法。它适用于产品(服务)前期设计开发,中期改进和后期维护完善的各个阶段,是用户中心设计的思想的重要体现。

10条可用性准则(Heuristics) These are ten general principles for user interface design. They are called “heuristics” because they are more in the nature of rules of thumb than specific usability guidelines.

1.Visibility of system status——系统状态的可见性

The system should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time.


2.Match between system and the real world——系统和现实世界之间的吻合

The system should speak the users' language, with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order.


3.User control and freedom——用户控制和自由

Users often choose system functions by mistake and will need a clearly marked “emergency exit” to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dialogue. Support undo and redo.


4.Consistency and standards——一致性和标准

Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions.

用户不必去担心是否不同的词,情形或动作意味着同一件事情。 遵循平台惯例。

5.Error prevention——预防错误的发生

Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action.


6.Recognition rather than recall——识别而不是回忆

Minimize the user’s memory load by making objects, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to another. Instructions for use of the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate.


7.Flexibility and efficiency of use——使用的舒适性和高效性

Accelerators – unseen by the novice user – may often speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the system can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions.


8.Aesthetic and minimalist design——有审美感的和内容最少的设计

Dialogues should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility.


9.Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors——帮助用户识别错误,诊断错误并从错误中恢复过来

Error messages should be expressed in plain language (no codes), precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution.


10.Help and documentation——帮助和说明

Even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search, focused on the user’s task, list concrete steps to be carried out, and not be too large.